Can a Hermaphrodite Get Pregnant? Understanding Intersex Conditions and Fertility

Intersex individuals, formerly known as hermaphrodites, have reproductive anatomy that doesn’t seem to fit the typical definitions of female or male. This leads many to wonder – can a hermaphrodite actually get pregnant and give birth? The answer is complex, depending on the type of intersex condition and fertility of the individual. This comprehensive guide examines the reproductive capabilities of various intersex conditions and what options may exist for pregnancy.

Key Takeaways: Can a Hermaphrodite Get Pregnant?

  • Intersex is an umbrella term for congenital conditions causing atypical reproductive anatomy. There are over 40 different intersex variations.
  • True hermaphroditism with both ovarian and testicular tissue is very rare in humans. Most intersex persons are infertile.
  • Those with mosaic Klinefelter’s syndrome (XX/XY) and ovotesticular DSD may be able to get pregnant with medical assistance.
  • Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) allows intersex females to get pregnant in some cases.
  • Medical interventions like IVF, surrogacy, adoption, or fostering may provide paths to parenthood for intersex individuals.
  • Intersex people should receive individualized medical care and counseling on their fertility options.

Defining Intersex and the History of the Term Hermaphrodite

The older term “hermaphrodite” has generally been replaced by the term “intersex” when describing individuals born with atypical reproductive or sexual anatomy. Hermaphrodite implies having both ovarian and testicular gonadal tissue and the ability to function as both male and female. While a few intersex conditions may involve ovotestes (gonads with both ovarian and testicular tissue), true hermaphroditism with functional gonads of both sexes is exceptionally rare in human beings.

Intersex is an umbrella term used to describe congenital conditions causing atypical development of chromosomes, gonads, hormones, genitals, and/or secondary sex characteristics. There are over 40 different intersex variations, involving varied combinations of intermediate or atypical features of the reproductive system.

Some now view the term hermaphrodite as problematic, stigmatizing, and misleading. Intersex advocacy groups generally promote the term intersex to describe these medical conditions affecting sexual differentiation and reproductive anatomy. However, hermaphrodite remains in medical literature to refer to rare intersex conditions like ovotesticular DSD exhibiting both ovarian and testicular tissue.

Is Pregnancy Possible for Any Intersex People?

Whether an intersex person can get pregnant largely depends on their specific intersex condition and associated reproductive anatomy and hormones.

Most intersex conditions impair fertility or make it impossible to carry a pregnancy. But pregnancy is possible in rare cases for people with certain intersex traits, like:

  • Mosaic Klinefelter syndrome (XX/XY): Individuals have some XX (female) and some XY (male) cells. Those with more XX cells may develop more ovary tissue and eggs, enabling pregnancy with fertility treatment.
  • Ovotesticular DSD: People have both ovarian and testicular gonadal tissue. If ovaries produce eggs, and female genitalia and hormones are present, pregnancy may occur.
  • Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS): Individuals have XY chromosomes and testes internally, but external genitalia appear partially or completely female. Some can get pregnant if vaginal depth and uterine development are sufficient.

However, the majority of intersex people are infertile and unable to get pregnant with their own gametes due to impaired gonadal function. Let’s look closer at some common intersex conditions and their pregnancy potential.

Unique Challenges of Getting Pregnant with Common Intersex Conditions

Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS)

  • CAIS causes typical female external genitalia in individuals with XY chromosomes. But they have undescended testes internally instead of ovaries/uterus.
  • They develop breasts and a vagina at puberty but cannot menstruate or get pregnant. Adoption or surrogacy would be required.

Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (PAIS)

  • PAIS causes more virilized or ambiguous genitalia in people with XY chromosomes and undescended testes. Some develop a shallow vagina.
  • Those with sufficient vaginal depth/uterine development may get pregnant with fertility treatment using donor eggs and IVF.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)

  • CAH causes genital virilization in XX females due to overproduction of androgens. Ovaries and uterus are typically present.
  • Those with mild cases may get pregnant, but high testosterone levels can prevent ovulation/menstruation. Fertility treatment can assist.

Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY)

  • Most cases cause infertility due to lack of gonadal function in individuals with one or more extra X chromosomes.
  • Those with mosaic Klinefelter’s (XX/XY cells) may produce more eggs in ovarian tissue and get pregnant using IVF with preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

Müllerian Agenesis/MRKH Syndrome

  • AMH gene mutations cause absence of the uterus, cervix, and upper vagina in females with typical XX chromosomes.
  • Pregnancy not currently possible, but research on uterine transplants aims to enable it for this group in the future.

Ovotesticular DSD

  • Gonads contain both ovarian and testicular tissue. Genitals may be ambiguous or male-typical.
  • If ovaries produce eggs and female reproductive tract is present, pregnancy may occur with fertility treatment.

The likelihood of viable pregnancy varies greatly for different intersex conditions based on the functionality of gonads, genital structures, and hormone levels in each case. Consultation with fertility and intersex specialists is needed to properly assess options.

Medical Interventions That Could Enable Pregnancy

For intersex individuals unable to get pregnant naturally, modern reproductive medicine offers some potential paths to biological parenthood:

IVF with Donor Eggs or Embryos

  • IVF allows pregnancy by surgically obtaining eggs/sperm and fertilizing externally. Donor eggs or embryos can be used.
  • Possible for some with PAIS, ovotesticular DSD, or mosaic Klinefelter’s if uterus and vagina developed.


  • Gestational carrier surgically implants embryo fertilized from donor eggs/sperm
  • Allows those without a uterus like CAIS females to have biological children.

Artificial Gametogenesis

  • Experimental process to derive eggs and sperm from skin cells could enable biological parenthood for many infertile intersex people in the future.

Uterus Transplantation

  • Transplanting a donated uterus could theoretically allow pregnancy for those lacking one. Recent successes in cisgender women.
  • Could help enable pregnancy for those with MRHK syndrome in the future if other reproductive structures intact.

Adoption and Fostering

  • Building a family through adoption or foster care remains an excellent option for intersex people.
  • Traditional, private, and international adoptions may have eligibility requirements to explore.

There are a number of innovative medical solutions currently being researched that offer hope for expanding family planning options for intersex individuals, along with the possibilities of adoption and foster care. Finding an affirming adoption agency is key.

What Fertility Options Are Available?

Intersex individuals have various medical options they can discuss with doctors to determine if fertility may be possible for them:

  • Hormone therapy – estrogen or testosterone can aid fertility in some conditions
  • Fertility medication – drugs promoting ovulation, sperm production, etc.
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF) – fertilizing eggs with sperm outside the body
  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI) – placing donor or partner’s sperm inside the uterus
  • Use of donor eggs, sperm, or embryos
  • Surrogacy – embryo implanted in a gestational carrier
  • Genetic testing to assess gonadal function
  • Fertility preservation – freezing eggs, sperm, or embryos
  • Surgery – vaginoplasty, uterine transplant, gonadectomy
  • Adoption/fostering

Not all options will be suitable for every individual. Working with medical professionals knowledgeable in intersex care and assisted reproduction is key. Psychosocial counseling is also recommended when exploring fertility options.

What Are the Chances an Intersex Person Can Get Pregnant?

Due to the immense variation among intersex conditions, it’s impossible to generalize the chances any individual can get pregnant. The fertility prognosis depends on multiple factors:

  • The person’s intersex condition and its impact on reproductive anatomy.
  • The viability and number of eggs in ovarian tissue.
  • The presence and functionality of sperm-producing testicular tissue
  • Structure of internal and external genitalia.
  • Hormone balance and regularity of ovulation/menstruation.
  • Use of any hormone medications.
  • Age and general health.
  • Willingness to use fertility treatments and assisted reproductive technology.

Statistically, the probability of viable natural conception is low for most intersex people given high rates of sterility. But promising fertility treatments exist for some diagnoses. Thorough testing is needed to determine each individual’s options. The assistance of fertility specialists who understand diverse intersex needs is ideal.

What Should Parents of Intersex Children Know About Fertility?

Many intersex conditions are diagnosed early in life. Parents often worry about the child’s future fertility prospects and options for having biological children.

Here are a few key things families should understand:

  • Fertility potential is uncertain and may remain unknown until puberty for some conditions.
  • Medically unnecessary cosmetic genital surgery in infancy should be avoided when possible, as this can cause infertility.
  • Hormones at puberty provide key diagnostic information, so treatment should be cautious.
  • Fertility preservation like egg/sperm extraction may be offered when diagnosis is clear.
  • Teens and young adults should receive updated information on reproductive options.
  • Referrals to intersex-friendly fertility specialists should be provided.
  • Counseling on psychosocial aspects of fertility for both parents and children is vital.

Despite uncertainty early on, many possibilities now exist for both biological parenthood and forming families through adoption or foster care. Ongoing education, individualized medical care, and open communication give intersex youth the best chance at fulfilling family goals in the future.

Understanding Fertility Prospects for Specific Intersex Diagnoses

Individual fertility outlooks for various intersex conditions:

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

  • CAIS: infertile, adoption required
  • PAIS: up to 1/3 may be fertile depending on anatomy, others require IVF with donor gametes

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

  • Impaired fertility possible unless carefully managed, fertility medication and IVF may be needed

Klinefelter Syndrome

  • Often infertile, but mosaic Klinefelter’s could allow pregnancy with IVF + PGD

Müllerian Agenesis/MRKH

  • Uterus transplant may enable pregnancy in future, currently not possible

Ovotesticular DSD

  • Fertility possible if ovaries functional, but reduced, IVF likely required

Turner Syndrome

  • Missing or abnormal X chromosome causes infertility

Clitoromegaly (Enlarged Clitoris)

  • No direct fertility impact but high testosterone can prevent periods

Hypospadias (Urethral Opening on Underside of Penis)

  • Condition does not directly affect fertility potential

The impact of atypical sexual development on fertility varies tremendously. Thorough examination and testing is required to properly counsel individuals on reproductive options.

Counseling for Intersex People Struggling with Infertility

Coping with infertility can be emotionally painful. Intersex individuals unable to reproduce may face complex feelings surrounding their identities and capabilities. Sensitive counseling on these psychosocial aspects is recommended:

  • Process grief, loss, isolation, shame, or inadequacy that may arise regarding infertility.
  • Discuss options like adoption, fostering, or voluntary childlessness.
  • External validation of dignity and worth of individual and their potential for parenthood.
  • Framing infertility as an attribute of the condition, not the person.
  • Building self-esteem and self-efficacy in other life domains.
  • Help with communicating to potential romantic partners about limitations compassionately.
  • Assess need for medication or additional mental health support.
  • Identify any positive aspects of infertility that may ease burdens of family planning.
  • Referrals for peer support groups for infertile men and women.

Compassionate psychological care can assist intersex people in making peace with infertility and charting a hopeful path to parenthood or voluntary childlessness.

Conclusion: Expanding Possibilities for Intersex Fertility and Families

While historic assumptions viewed intersex individuals as universally sterile, emerging research on fertility potential provides new hope to those wishing to have genetically-related children. Advances in reproductive medicine like uterus transplants and IVF using artificial gametes may further expand possibilities for intersex pregnancy in the future.

But the current likelihood of natural conception remains low for many with atypical sexual development. Prospects differ based on each person’s condition. Realistic yet compassionate counseling is imperative starting in childhood so individuals and families can make fully informed decisions about fertility preservation options and alternative paths to parenthood in adulthood.

Holistic intersex care should honor each affected person’s reproductive autonomy. With patient-centered education, empathetic counseling, and individually tailored treatments, more intersex people may be able to fulfill their dreams of having children. While expanding medical options offers hope, adoption and other diverse family structures can also provide beautiful paths to parenthood for those with infertility. Though intersex fertility journeys may be complex, creative solutions exist to enable these individuals to experience the joys of family life in affirming ways.

Frequently Asked Questions About Intersex Fertility and Pregnancy

What percentage of intersex people are able to have children?

There are no definitive statistics on what percentage of intersex individuals can reproduce, as fertility rates vary greatly for different intersex conditions. Some estimates suggest 10-25% may be fertile without assisted reproductive techniques. However, many intersex people require medical intervention to achieve pregnancy.

Can you get pregnant if you are born without a uterus?

People born without a uterus due to Müllerian agenesis or MRKH syndrome presently cannot get pregnant, because there is no place for the embryo to implant and grow. However, innovations like uterine transplants aim to potentially enable pregnancy in the future for those lacking a uterus but with functioning ovaries.

What parent should do if their newborn is diagnosed as intersex?

If an intersex condition is identified at birth, parents should focus on welcoming and bonding with their baby. Elective cosmetic genital surgeries should be avoided. Get information from intersex-affirming healthcare teams about the specific diagnosis and any immediate medical needs. Ask about projected fertility issues and preservation options. Seek out peer support groups to learn from other families’ experiences.

Can doctors help intersex people conceive children?

Many current fertility treatments like IVF, fertility medications, genital reconstruction, and uterus transplants may aid certain intersex people in conceiving, depending on their anatomy and physiology. Working with doctors experienced in intersex healthcare and assisted reproduction offers the greatest chance of having biological children for those with fertility challenges.

What options exist for intersex individuals unable to have children themselves?

If an intersex individual lacks fertility, options like adoption, fostering to adopt, and legal guardianship allow them to experience the joys of raising children. Traditional, private, and international adoptions each have different requirements to explore. Support groups also exist for those coping with infertility or electing voluntary childlessness.

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