Getting pregnant while on your period is unlikely but possible in rare cases. Understanding menstruation and ovulation is key to knowing your chances of conceiving during your period.
- It is extremely unlikely but possible in rare circumstances to get pregnant during your period.
- Pregnancy from period sex is only possible if you have a short menstrual cycle with early ovulation, or a long period.
- Your fertile window when you can get pregnant is about 5-7 days before ovulation until ovulation.
- Ovulation is when an egg is released from the ovaries – and usually occurs about 14 days before your next period.
- Sperm can survive inside the female body for up to 5 days. So if you ovulate very soon after your period, the sperm still present can fertilize the egg.
- Tracking your cycle with ovulation test kits can help identify when you are ovulating versus menstruating to avoid pregnancy.
Understanding Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation
To understand the chances of getting pregnant during your period, it’s important to first understand how the menstrual cycle and ovulation work.
The menstrual cycle is the cycle of physiological changes that occur in reproductive-age females that makes pregnancy possible. It generally has a length of 28 days but can range from 21 to 35 days.
The typical 28 day menstrual cycle is comprised of three phases:
- Follicular Phase – Days 1 to 13
This phase begins on the first day of your period. During this time, estrogen levels rise and mature an egg in the ovaries.
- Ovulation – Day 14
Ovulation occurs around day 14 when a mature egg is released from the ovaries. This egg can then be fertilized by sperm.
- Luteal Phase – Days 15 to 28
The leftover follicle from the egg seals off and progesterone levels increase during the luteal phase. If no fertilization occurs, progesterone levels drop around day 28, shedding the uterine lining and starting your next period.
Ovulation is when the ovaries release a mature egg into the Fallopian tubes where it can be fertilized by sperm for pregnancy to occur.
Ovulation happens about 14 days before the start of your next period. But the exact timing of ovulation can vary from cycle to cycle and between women.
Sperm can survive inside the female reproductive tract for up to 5 days after sex. Any sperm remaining when an egg is released during ovulation can potentially cause pregnancy.
Now that you understand the basics of the menstrual cycle and how ovulation aligns with your period, let’s look closer at the odds of getting pregnant from sex while on your period.
Chances of Getting Pregnant on Your Period
Having sex during the heaviest bleeding days of your period carries an extremely low but not zero chance of getting pregnant.
Here are the key reasons why getting pregnant from period sex is highly unlikely:
- Thick uterine lining – During your period, the uterine lining is thickened and blood-filled in preparation for shedding. This acts as a barrier to sperm entering the uterus and fallopian tubes.
- Cervical mucus – The cervix produces a mucus plug during menstruation making it difficult for sperm to swim through the cervix.
- Lower sperm survival – The vagina has more acidic pH levels during this time which can reduce sperm motility and survival.
- No ovulation – On average, ovulation occurs about 14 days before the start of the next period. So having sex on your period likely means ovulation has not yet occurred.
However, there are some rare circumstances where you may ovulate very early in your cycle, or have a long period overlap with ovulation. This makes pregnancy possible from period sex:
- Short cycle – Some women have naturally shorter menstrual cycles of 21-24 days. Their ovulation can occur shortly after their period ends, even within 5 days.
- Long period – If you have a longer, irregular period that overlaps with early ovulation, sperm survival could still lead to pregnancy.
- Variable ovulation – Most women ovulate on a consistent schedule. But others experience irregular ovulation which can happen earlier than expected relative to their period.
Though rare, if you do ovulate shortly after your period or are still spotting when ovulation occurs, sperm remaining in the body from period sex can lead to pregnancy.
Cycle Tracking for Ovulation
cycle with ovulation occurring shortly after your period ends, there are ways to identify when ovulation is actually occurring versus menstruating.
Ovulation prediction kits detect the surge in luteinizing hormone that precedes ovulation by 1-2 days. Using these around when you expect ovulation can confirm your LH surge is not aligning with your period.
Fertility tracking through body basal temperature and cervical mucus changes can also help map your personal fertile window each cycle.
Apps and calendars that track your period and average cycle lengths can predict ovulation and fertile days. But these are less precise than active fertility tracking methods.
Being aware of when you are most fertile based on predicting and detecting ovulation can prevent pregnancy from period sex in those rare instances where it could occur.
Other Considerations for Sex During Your Period
Beyond the risk of pregnancy, there are other considerations around having sex during menstruation:
- Mess and hygiene – Sex during a period can get messy. Using dark sheets, towels, or having shower sex can help. Some use a menstrual cup or sponge to contain flow during intercourse.
- Infections – Having sex when bleeding could increase the risk of spreading blood-borne infections for partners. Those with HIV or blood clotting disorders may want to avoid period sex.
- Pain and sensitivity – Some women experience cramps, bloating, soreness and heightened sensitivity around their genitals during their period which could make sex uncomfortable.
- Libido – Hormone fluctuations during your cycle can increase or tank sex drive. Some feel increased arousal just before or during their period, while others experience a lower libido.
- Birth control – If you solely rely on barrier methods like condoms for birth control, be sure to use them even during your period to prevent pregnancy.
- Cultural and religious taboos – Certain cultures and religions consider sex during menstruation to be unsanitary or forbidden. Partners may need to discuss and respect each other’s beliefs.
In addition to the minimal chances of pregnancy, whether you have sex during your period is an individual preference based on comfort levels, cultural background, hygiene practices, and relationship dynamics.
Common Questions About Getting Pregnant on Your Period
Here are answers to some frequently asked questions about the chances of getting pregnant from sex during your period:
Can you get pregnant at the end of your period?
It’s unlikely, but possible, to get pregnant at the end of your period. Sperm can survive for 5-7 days inside the female body. If you ovulate shortly after your period, the sperm could still be viable when the egg is released and lead to pregnancy. Tracking ovulation is key to identifying when the end of your period overlaps with your fertile window.
Can you get pregnant if you have sex during your period and he doesn’t pull out?
In most cases, it is highly unlikely you will get pregnant from sex without a condom during your period. As explained above, ovulation typically does not align with menstruation, making pregnancy very rare. However, to be extra safe you may want use protection or have your partner withdraw if you have an especially short menstrual cycle or long irregular periods that could overlap your fertile days.
Can you get pregnant on the last day of your period?
It is not likely you will get pregnant on the last day of your period, but a slim chance exists. Sperm can survive for several days, so if you ovulate shortly after your period ends, sperm remaining inside you could still result in pregnancy. Tracking ovulation is important to determine if your last period days overlap with the start of your fertile window.
Can sperm survive a week after your period?
Yes, sperm can survive inside the female reproductive system for up to 5-7 days after intercourse. If you happen to ovulate later in your cycle, sperm remaining from sex during your period could still be viable to cause pregnancy. However, this would require you to have a shorter menstrual cycle with later ovulation, which is less common.
Is it safe to have unprotected sex during your period?
While you are very unlikely to get pregnant from having unprotected sex during your period, it does not completely protect against pregnancy in all cases. It’s also important to consider the risks of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using protection like condoms during your period is the only way to fully prevent pregnancy and STIs.
When to Take a Pregnancy Test After Sex on Your Period
Wondering when you should take a pregnancy test after having sex during your period? Here are some general guidelines:
- Take a pregnancy test 21 days after sex during your period for the most accurate result. This allows time for any hCG hormones from an pregnancy to build up and be detectable.
- If you have a shorter menstrual cycle, test 18 days after instead since ovulation and implantation may occur sooner.
- If you have an irregular cycle, test 28 days after period sex if you have not gotten your next period. This gives more time in case ovulation was delayed.
- Use early detection pregnancy tests that can identify hCG sooner than other types of tests. First morning urine tends to contain the highest hCG levels.
- If you get a negative test but still no period, wait a week and retest. HCG levels double every 48 hours in early pregnancy.
- If you get a positive pregnancy test after period sex, make an appointment with your doctor to confirm the pregnancy. Ruling out a new pregnancy versus a prior one is important.
While it is highly unlikely, take a pregnancy test if your period is late after having sex during your period as a precaution. Tracking ovulation can also help identify if you had period sex close to your fertile window when conception was possible.
Conception Chances are Low but Possible
Having sex during your period is highly unlikely to result in pregnancy, but the odds are not zero. If you happen to ovulate very soon after your period, or are still spotting when you ovulate, sperm remaining inside you could still lead to pregnancy.
Likewise, if you have a short menstrual cycle, early ovulation is more likely to overlap with your period. Those with long, irregular periods may also be at greater risk of period sex resulting in pregnancy.
Tracking your personal cycle patterns, using ovulation test kits, and understanding your fertile window are the best ways to identify when you can conceive versus when pregnancy is unlikely.
While many enjoy period sex due to reduced concerns about pregnancy, take precautions if you want to avoid conception happening by chance outside of the predicted fertile timeframe.